INTISARI TATA BAHASA INGGRIS

INTISARI TATA BAHASA INGGRIS
Disusun oleh: Rishan Azhari, S.Pd, M.Pd
(untuk kalangan terbatas)
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1. Sebagian besar kalimat kompleks (kalimat yang memilki induk dan anak kalimat / lebih dari satu Subyek dan Predikat) memiliki pola keteraturan yang sama, yaitu PARALEL dalam bentuk kata kerja.
Misalnya:
A. Jika salah satu bagian kalimat memiliki kata kerja PAST ( Verb2), maka kata kerja lainnya juga PAST (V2). Contoh:
I was sleeping when he called me.
B. Jika salah satu bagian kalimat memiliki kata kerja PRESENT (V1), maka kata kerja lainnya juga PRESENT (V1). Contoh:
She will dance, sing, shout, and cry in her performance.
C. Jika salah satu kata kerja merupakan kata kerja continous (VERB ing), maka semua kata kerja juga VERB ing. Contoh:
They are reading, writing, and discussing in the library right now.

Contoh soal:
The students … in the workshop when a group of students from another province came to do comparative study.
a. Practice c. Have practiced
b. are practising d. Were practising

karena came adalah kata kerja PAST, maka jawaban : d (were practicing), karena were juga berbentuk PAST, sedangkan a-b-c salah karena merupakan kata kerja PRESENT.

Pelajari TABEL berikut:

PRESENT

PAST
Is
Am
Are Was
Was
Were
Will
Can
Shall
May Would
Could
Should
Might
Has / Has to
Have / Have to Had / Had to
Had / Had to
Do
Does Did
Did
Semua Verb 1, contoh:
Listen
Study
Go Semua Verb 2, contoh:
Listened
Studied
Went

2. Kata kerja yang didahului Preposition dan kata kerja tertentu HARUS dalam bentuk VERB ing.

Preposition dan Kata Kerja Tertentu

At, With Help In, After About
On, Begin Deny Of, Finish Stand
Off, While Hate For, Like Love By, Before Go Do Mind Cancel
V + ing

Contoh Soal:
The generous child loves … food and money, but he canceled giving the things yesterday
because he forgot to bring them.
a. give b. Gave c. Giving d. given
Karena kata kerja pada soal tersebut didahului LOVED, maka jawaban : c (giving).

3. Sebagian besar kalimat tunggal dalam bahasa Inggris memiliki susunan :
ADJECTIVE (kata sifat) – NOUN (kata benda) – VERB (kata kerja) – ADVERB (Kata Keterangan)
Perhatikan Tabel Berikut:
Adjective Noun Verb Adverb
Happy
New
……ive:
Positive
….ful:
Beautiful
….ble / ..able:
Understandable
….less:
loudless Students
Culture
…..se:
Response
….ion / tion:
Nation
….ity:
Reality
….ness:
loudness Study
Comes
Went
Slept
Gone
Talking Hard
Well
….ly:
Easily
Loudly
Beautifully
Contoh Soal:
The beauty girl studies hard every nights and days.
A B C D
Bagian kalimat yang salah pada kalimat tersebut adalah A (beauty), semestinya Beautiful karena Beautiful adalah Kata Sifat (Adjective), sedangkan Beauty adalah Kata Benda (Noun).
Susunan Kalimat tersebut adalah:
The beautiful girl studies hard every nights and days.
Adjective Noun Verb Adverb

4. Terdapat Tiga Tipe Utama COMPARISON (Kalimat Perbandingan), yaitu:
A. Perbandingan Sebanding / Sama
Rumus:
S + (is/am/are/was/were) + as + adjective (kata sifat) + as + S
Contoh:
My friend is as clever as my girl friend (is.)
B. Perbandingan Lebih (comparative)
1. Jika kata sifat yang dibandingkan terdiri atas satu suku kata (big, small, cheap, clever, …) maka rumusnya:
S + (is/am/are/was/were) + adjective + r/ er + than + S
Contoh:
My father is 175 cm tall. My mother is 158 cm tall.
My father is taller than my mother.
2. Jika kata sifat yang dibandingkan terdiri lebih dari satu suku kata (beautiful, handsome, dilligent, intelligent, crowded) maka rumusnya:
S + (is/am/are/was/were) + more + adjective + than + S
Contoh:
My girlfriend is more beautiful than your girlfriend.

C. Perbandingan Paling (superlative)
1. Jika kata sifat yang dibandingkan terdiri atas satu suku kata (young, small, short) maka rumusnya:
S + (is/am/are/was/were) + the + adjective + st/ est
Contoh:
My father is 175 cm tall. My mother is 158 cm tall. My brother is 180 cm tall.
My brother is the tallest.
2. Jika kata sifat yang dibandingkan terdiri lebih dari satu suku kata (careful, handsome, ..) maka rumusnya:
S + (is/am/are/was/were) + the + most + adjective
Contoh:
Sierra Leone is the most dangerous country in the world.

Terdapat beberapa pengecualian dalam tata kalimat perbandingan ini:
Adjective Comparative Superlative
Good
Bad
Little
Far Better
Worse
Less
Further Best
Worst
Least
Farthest

Contoh:
Ronaldo is good. Pele is better than Ronaldo. Diego is the best.

Yusuf Kalla who comes from South Sulawesi is one of the … people in Eastern Indonesia.
a. more richer b. Richer c. Richest d. Most rich
jawaban: c (richest) karena dalam soal terdapat artikel the, maka perbandingan yang digunakan adalah perbandingan Paling. Rich terdiri atas satu suku kata sehingga Rich + est.
The flash camera is not quite as … as the Horizon snap camera.
a. expensive b. More expensive c. Expensively d. Most expensive
Jawaban : a (expensive). Perbandingan di atas merupakan Perbandingan Sama (Sebanding). B (more expensive) jelas salah karena di dalam kalimat soal tidak terdapat kata Than. C (Expensively) adalah kata Keterangan (diakhiri –ly), sedangkan D (most expensive) juga salah (tidak terdapat kata The sebelum Kata Sifat yang dibandingkan).

5. Berikut adalah KATA – KATA yang selalu diikuti Kata Kerja (VERB) 1, yaitu kata kerja yang MURNI, tanpa tambahan apapun (misalnya mendapat tambahan akhiran: s, es, ed, d, ing):
Do / Does Did
Will Would
Can Could
Shall Should
May Might
Must Have to
Has to Had to
…to (semua kata kerja yang didahului to):
Like to / want to / wanted to / need to / needed to

VERB 1

Contoh Soal:
She might sleeping when she thought she was very tired.
A B C D

Bagian kalimat yang harus diperbaiki adalah B (sleeping), semestinya sleep karena setelah kata Might harus Kata Kerja 1 (Verb 1).

6. Elliptical: kalimat yang terdiri atas dua atau lebih Subject yang mempunyai Kata Kerja yang sama.

Contoh:
1. – I can swim
– Irwan can swim
Dua kalimat tersebut dapat digabung menjadi: I can swim and Irwan can too, atau:
I can swim and so can Irwan.
2. – I can not fly
– Irwan can not fly
Dua kalimat tersebut dapat digabung menjadi: I can not fly and neither can Irwan, atau: I can not fly and Irwan can not either.

Positive

Negative
So + Auxilary (Kt.Bantu) + Subject
Subject + Auxilary + Too
Neither + Auxilary + Subject
Subject + Auxilary + NOT + either

Contoh soal:
Tya likes singing English songs and Aris … too.
a. does b. Did c. Is d. Was
Jawaban : a (does), karena kata Bantu (auxilary) pada kalimat: Tya likes singing English song adalah Does (Like + Does = Likes).

7. A. Conjunction (kata sambung) dalam bahasa inggris dapat berupa kata tanya Who, Whom, Whose, Which yang berarti Yang (Adjective Clause).
Conjunction
(Adj. Clause) Indonesian Meaning Fungsi dalam kalimat Contoh
Who Yang Subject (orang) The man wears a hat. The man is Mr. Jones.
The man who wears a hat is Mr. Jones.
Whom

Yang Object (orang) I like the girl. She is wearing t-shirt.
The girl whom I like is wearing t-shirt.
Whose Yang … nya Whose+Noun
(kt.benda)
(milik…nya) The girl is my sister. I borrowed her book.
The girl whose book I borrowed is my sister.
Which Yang Subject, Object He likes the animal. The animal is spider.
The animal which he likes is spider.

Contoh soal:
The doctor carefully examined patients … heads had been injured in an accident.
a. that b. Whom c. Who d. Whose

Jawaban: d (whose), karena dalam soal … diikuti kata benda (heads), maka arti kalimat menjadi ….yang kepala nya…

I can say, that the person … I like best is Ms. Tia
a. who b. Whose c. Whom d. Whoever
Jawaban : c (whom).
Kalimat tersebut terdiri atas:
I like the person. She is Ms. Tia.
S P O S P O
Dari kalimat tersebut terlihat bahwa the person / Ms. Tia adalah Objek Kalimat.

B. Conjunction (connector) juga dapat berupa kata sambung penjelas:
Conjunction Indonesian Meaning Conjunction Indonesian Meaning
Although
While
Though
Although
Eventhough
Whereas
If
Even if
Unless
Only if
Once
In case
Whether or not Meskipun
Meskipun
Meskipun
Meskipun
Meskipun
Meskipun
Jika
Jika
Jika
Jika
Jika
Jika
Jika Provided that
Because
Since
So that
Whereas
In order that
But
However
Besides
Also
Therefore
Moreover
So that Jika
Karena
Karena
Karena
Karena
Karena
Tapi
Tapi
Disamping itu / juga
Juga
Oleh karena itu / sehingga
Lagi pula
Sehingga

Contoh soal:
Amelia is smart and dilligent and … she nice to all her classmates.
a. however b. Besides c. Nevertheless d. Therefore
Jawaban: b (besides)

8. Delapan Tenses Utama yang sering digunakan:

Nama Tenses Formula/ Rumus Kata Kunci Fungsi Contoh
1. Present Tense

2. Past Tense

3. Present Continous

4. Past Continous

5. Present Perfect

6. Past Perfect

7. Present
Future

8. Past Future S + Verb 1
(untuk She, He, It, Verb 1+s/es

S + Verb 2

S + (is,am,are) + V ing

S + (was,were) + V ing

S + have/ has + Verb 3

S + had + Verb 3

S + will + Verb 1

S + would + Verb 1 Every….
Everyday, every week, every month, every year, every Sundays,..
…..s
Mondays, Tuesdays, ..
Always, frequently, occasionally, hardly ever, seldom, never

Last…
Last week, last month, last year, last night,…
….Ago
Two days ago, seven weeks ago, ten years ago, ..
Yesterday

Right now, now, nowdays, these days, at this moment, right away.

Then, at that time, yesterday, Last….
…..Ago (seperti pada Past Tense)

since…
since last year, since two months ago.
For …
For 2 weeks, For 3 years
since…
since last year, since two months ago.
For …
For 2 weeks, For 3 years

Next …
Next year, next month, next week,
Tomorrow

Pelajari: Conditional ! Menyatakan Kebiasaan (sesuatu/kegiatan yang selalu dilakukan)

Menyatakan Kegiatan yang telah dilakukan.

Menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung saat pembicara sedang mengucapkan kalimat tersebut.

Menyatakan satu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada saat kegiatan lain telah terjadi.

Kegiatan yang telah terjadi sejak dulu dan sampai saat ini masih terjadi

Kegiatan yang telah terjadi sejak dulu dan masih terjadi pada saat kegiatan lain berlangsung.

Kegiatan yang akan terjadi.

Pelajari: Conditional ! We always go to school every morning.
He never watches TV at nights.

I went to Loksado last month.
We camped in Riam Langga waterfall two years ago.

My lecturer is writing a composition now.
My family and I are having lunch right now.

She was reading a book when you came last night.
Diego was dribbling the ball when Peter blocked him.

He has taught English at this university since 1999.
I have studied here for 3 years.
He had lived in Banjarbaru for 2 years when his son was born.

We will study at a university next year.
She will get married next month.

Pelajari: Conditional !

Contoh Soal:
Look, people … on the queue to get an admission letter to do the test for the job.
a. stand b. Are standing c. Stood d. Will stand

Jawaban : b (are standing) / Present Continous Tense. Meskipun tidak terdapat kata Keterangan Waktu pada kalimat tersebut, namun terdapat kata Look (lihat) maka jelas bahwa Tenses yang digunakan adalah yang berkaitan dengan waktu saat pembicaraan berlangsung (Present Continous Tense)

My brother always smile cheerfully to people who cuddle him.
A B C D
Bagian kalimat yang salah adalah A (smile), semestinya Smiles (Verb 1 +s/es) karena kalimat tersebut merupakan suatu kebiasaan (kata kunci: always) sehingga berpola Present Tense.

9. Terdapat Tiga Tipe Utama CONDITIONAL Sentence (Kalimat Pengandaian), yaitu:

Type

Form (Rumus)
Fungsi
CONTOH
1 S + WILL + VERB 1 , IF + S + VERB 1 Kemungkinan yang bisa terjadi pada waktu akan datang I will study in a university if I graduate from this school.
2 S + WOULD + VERB 1 , IF + S + VERB 2 Khayalan (Imaginasi) I would travel around the world if I were a millioner.
3 S + WOULD+ HAVE + VERB 3 , IF + S + HAD + VERB 3 Penyesalan atas sesuatu yang telah terjadi I would have passed the test if I had studied hard

Keterangan:
– Pada TYPE 1, saya akan melanjutkan ke perguruan tinggi jika saya nanti lulus dari sekolah ini.
– Pada TYPE 2, seandainya saya seorang jutawan maka saya akan keliling dunia. Kalimat ini merupakan khayalan saya saat ini. Semua TOBE yang digunakan pada Type 2 adalah WERE.
– Pada TYPE 3, seandainya saya belajar keras maka saya pasti lulus ujian. Kalimat ini merupakan penyesalan karena faktanya saya tidak lulus akibat tidak belajar keras.

Contoh Soal:
Agustin … you if she had your phone number.
a. will call b. Would call c. Called d. Would have called
Pada kalimat di atas, setelah kata “if” terdapat Subject + Verb 2 “had”, sehingga pola kalimat pengandaian yang dipakai adalah Type 2. Jawaban: b (would call)

10. Terdapat beberapa kata yang SELALU dalam bentuk singular (tunggal):
Every ….(everybody, everyone, everything) ; Some…(somebody, someone, something) ;
Any … (anybody, anyone, anything) ; No… (noone, nobody, nothing).
Each ; Either ; Neither.
Contoh soal: Neither of these books are very new.
A B C D
Dalam kalimat tersebut, bagian yang salah adalah D (are). Meskipun terdapat these books (bukunya lebih dari satu), namun terdapat kata Neither, maka predikat / kata kerja / tobe pada kalimat tersebut adalah IS.

11. Ekspresi yang berkaitan dengan jumlah waktu, uang, berat, volume, HARUS dalam bentuk tunggal (Singular).

Contoh :
Four days is enough time for a nice hike.
Meskipun four days dalam bentuk jamak, namun merupakan satu kesatuan, maka kata kerja yang digunakan dalam bentuk tunggal, IS.

SINGULAR PLURAL
Is
Am
was
Has, had
Does Are,

Were
Have
Do

Contoh soal:
100 kilometers are very hard and long way to walk.
A B C D
Bagian kalimat yang salah adalah b (are), semestinya is.

12. Perhatikan Tabel Perubahan Bagian Kata di bawah ini:

Subject Object Possessive
I
You
We
They
He
She
It Me
You
Us
Them
Him
Her
It My ….(Noun/kt.Benda)
Your ..(Noun/kt.Benda)
Our ….(Noun/kt.Benda)
Their….(Noun/kt.Benda)
His ….(Noun/kt.Benda)
Her ….(Noun/kt.Benda)
Its ….(Noun/kt.Benda) Mine
Yours
Ours
Theirs
His
Hers
Its Myself
Yourself
Ourself
Themselves
Himself
Herself
Itself

Contoh soal:
They asked me to copy the report, but I told them to do theirselves.
A B C D
Bagian kalimat yang salah adalah D (theirselves). Semestinya: Themselves.

Please introduce … to all the people inside the room.
a. mine b. Yours c. Themselves d. Yourself
Jawaban: d (yourself)

13. Articles (Artikel) BIASANYA selalu ada di depan kata benda (NOUN).
Artikel (kata depan) dalam bahasa Inggris misalnya:
A untuk BUNYI konsonan, BUKAN HURUF Konsonan.
An untuk BUNYI vokal (a, e, o, u, i ), BUKAN HURUF vokal.
The untuk benda yang sudah disebutkan sebelumnya atau benda yang sudah diketahui.

Contoh:
An hour is not enough time to answer all the questions.
An digunakan karena Hour dibaca “AWER” (didahului BUNYI vokal A)
Contoh soal: The … has been made that we won’t go further to the west bank of the river.
a. Determined c. determination
b. Determinant d. Determinate
Karena bagian kalimat yang kosong didahului artikel The, maka jawaban yang diinginkan adalah Kata Benda (Noun). Jawaban : c (determination). Determined adalah Kata Kerja 3, Determinant adalah Kata Sifat, sedangkan Determinate adalah kata Kerja.

14. Preposition

Preposition Fungsi Contoh
At

On

In Untuk segala yang berhubungan dengan nomor / angka, misalnya jam, tanggal, nomor rumah

Nama Jalan,

Bulan dan Tanggal

Nama Kota
Tahun
Bulan saja I live at 75 Nusantara Street.
He will wait me at 7 am tomorrow morning.

Lambung Mangkurat University is on Jalan Akhmad Yani.
Wanadri was born on July, 24th 2001

We study in Banjarbaru
Heavy Metal was very popular in 1980s
My lecturer was born in July

Contoh soal:
He has lived on New Jersey for many years.
A B C D
Bagian kalimat yang salah adalah : B (on), semestinya in (New Jersey adalah nama kota)

The graduation day will be held … June 10, 2004.
a. on b. In c. At d. Since
Jawaban : a. (on)

15. Pola UMUM Kalimat Passive (Passive Voice):
S + TOBE + VERB 3

Contoh:
A. Kalimat Aktif Present Tense : I meet my students every day.
Kalimat Pasif : My students are met by me every day.
S BE V3

B. Kalimat Aktif Past Tense : I met my students last week
Kalimat Pasif : My students were met by me last week.
S BE V3

C. Kalimat Aktif Present Continous : I am meeting my students now.
Kalimat Pasif : My students are being met by me now.

S BE V3
D. Kalimat Aktif Past Continous : I was meeting my students when the bel rang.
Kalimat Pasif : My students were being met by me when the bel rang.
S BE V3

E. Kalimat Aktif Present Perfect : I have met my students since 7 a.m.
Kalimat Pasif : My students have been met by me since 7 a.m.
S BE V3
F. Kalimat Aktif Past Perfect : I had met my students for 2 hours when the bel rang.
Kalimat Pasif : My students had been met by me for 2 hours when the bell rang.
S BE V3

G. Kalimat Aktif Present Future : I will meet my students tomorrow.
Kalimat Pasif : My students will be met by me tomorrow.
S BE V3

H. Kalimat Aktif Past Future : I would meet my students if they came next year.
Kalimat Pasif : My students would be met by me if they came next year.
S BE V3
Contoh Soal:
New products … in the electronic exibition in Jakarta Expo Centre a week ago.
a. display b. Displaying c. Were displayed d. Is played

Jawaban: c (were displayed).
Kalimat di atas berbentuk Past Tense kalimat Pasif. Kata kunci pada kalimat pasif di atas adalah: products (jumlahnya lebih dari satu) dan kata ago yang berarti lampau (PAST), maka jawaban yang dicari adalah TOBE jamak untuk kalimat PAST yaitu: were + kata kerja 3.

Your future will be … on what kind of activities you always do in your everyday life.
a. basic b. Based c. Basing d. base
Jawaban: b. Based (Based adalah Kata Kerja 3). Kalimat ini adalah Kalimat Pasif.

16. Kata – kata berikut SELALU berpasangan:
Both …. and ….. ; Between …… and …………. ; Not only ………but also ……..
Neither…………nor………………; Either……………..or……………..

Contoh soal:
Both you with me are the students of SMK N 2 Banjarbaru.
A B C D
Bagian yang salah adalah B (with) mestinya And, karena pasangan Both selalu And.

17. Perubahan dari Kalimat Langsung (Direct Speech) menjadi Kalimat Tidak Langsung (Indirect Speech) secara umum adalah:
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Pertanyaan (Introgative)
Present ….
Past Tense Pernyataan (Affirmative)
Past …
Past Perfect
Contoh:
Arie : When do you study English?
Iwang : Everyday.
What did Arie ask Iwang?
a. He asked Iwang when do you study English.
b. He asked Iwang when Iwang studies English.
c. He asked Iwang when Iwang studied English.
d. He asked Iwang when did you study English.

Jawaban: c (He asked Iwang when Iwang studied English).
Kalimat langsung pada soal berupa kalimat pertanyaan dengan pola Present Tense, sehingga kalimat Tidak langsungnya menjadi Kalimat Pernyataan dengan pola Past tense.

Apabila kalimat langsung berupa pertanyaan yang jawabannya Yes / No, maka Kalimat Tidak Langsung memerlukan kata Sambung If / Whether yang berarti Apakah.
Contoh Soal:
Anita : Can you draw perfectly?
Irwan : Sure.
What did Anita ask Irwan? She asked …
a. Can you draw perpectly
b. Can he draw perfectly
c. If he can draw perfectly
d. If he could draw perfectly.

Jawaban : d (If he could draw perfectly).
Pertanyaan pada kalimat Langsung pada soal berbentuk Yes / No question, sehingga memerlukan kata sambung If / whether. Sedangkan bentuk Past dari modal Can adalah Could.

18. Penggunaan TOBE
TOBE:

Is, am, are
Was, were,
Be
Being
Been
VERB + ING

He conducts a research

VERB 3

A researcher is conducted (by him).

Adjective
She is wonderful

Adverb
We are here

Contoh soal:
After having a long and tiring discussion, a better solution is finally chose.
a b c d
pada soal tersebut, d. Chose salah, karena chose adalah Verb2, sedangkan pada kalimat
tersebut terdapat tobe IS, sehingga Verb yang benar adalah Verb+ing atau Verb 3. Kalimat tersebut bermakna Pasif sehingga yang benar adalah Verb3 (CHOSEN).

19. Penggunaan VERB 3:

HAVE / HAS
HAD

VERB 3
Present/ Past Perfect:

Neither you nor I have visited Mount Everest.
She had gone home already.

TOBE Passive Voice:

The letter was sent yesterday

Contoh soal:
For the rest of his life, he has never ……..his youth.
a. Forget c. forgot
b. Forgets d. Forgotten
Jawaban yang tepat adalah d. Forgotten (Verb 3) karena pada kalimat tersebut terdapat auxilary (kt. Bantu) has.

20. Penggunaan Auxilary (kata bantu):

Positive / Affirmative Negative Introgative / Question
1. I go
2. I went home
3. I’m going home
4. I will go
5. I have gone
6. I should go 1. I don’t go
2. I didn’t go
3. I’m not going home
4. I won’t go
5. I haven’t gone
6. I shouldn’t go 1. Do I go?
2. Did I go?
3. Am I going home?
4. Will I go?
5. Have I gone?
6. Should I go?

Untuk membuat Informative (WH) question:

WH + Aux. + S + Verb ?

Contoh:
When will I go home?
How do I go home?

Kecuali pertanyaan menggunakan WHO yang menanyakan informasi Subject:
Contoh:
Who is going home?
Who comes to school everyday?

21.
LET
MAKE OBJECT VERB 1 ex:
Let’s Go!
They made her cry
22. Penggunaan artikel THE :
A. Sesuatu yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya.
Contoh: I have a very interesting book. The book is new.
B. Benda Satu – Satunya (the one and the only).
Contoh: I see the sun on the blue sky.

23. Jika dalam kalimat tidak terdapat auxilary (kata bantu),maka auxilary-nya adalah:
PRESENT : DO / DOES
I GO
I DON’T GO
HE GOES
HE DOESN’T GO
PAST : DID
I STUDIED
I DIDN,T STUDY
HE WENT
HE DIDN’T GO
===========================================arieenglish@yahoo.co.id=====

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